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Sunday, November 27, 2022

Learn How to Create Classes in C# – MUO – MakeUseOf

Explore object-oriented programming with classes and objects in C#.
Object-oriented programming is one of the most popular programming paradigms. This is because it models both data and functions and lets you think in terms of real-world objects. Classes are a fundamental aspect of object-oriented programming as they provide the blueprint you need to create objects.
C# is a popular multi-paradigm programming language, which uses the object-oriented paradigm. In this article, you will learn how to create and use classes in C#.
In C#, a class is a reference type, which will contain the null value until you create a new object of the class. To create a new class in C# you will need several components:
The code above creates a new class that is accessible by other classes in the same assembly (compilation file). C# has exactly six access modifiers that you can use to control the accessibility levels of your classes, variables, and methods. The six access modifiers are:
Attributes are the building blocks for the classes you create. They hold sensitive data and usually have a private or protected access modifier. Therefore, to access these classes from external classes you would need to use accessors and mutators (getters and setters).
C# allows you to declare your attributes, mutators, and accessors as follows:
Other popular object-oriented languages also use the approach above. In fact, if you want to create Java classes, you will have to use the structure above. However, C# now has an easier way of creating attributes and accessors. In C#, this class has the same function as the one above:
The class above contains what C# calls properties, which is a combination of attributes(fields) and methods. With properties, you can reduce your attribute declaration, mutators, and accessors code by half.
Constructors are another fundamental aspect of a class. To create an object from a class you will have to call one of its constructors. Each constructor has an optional access modifier and the same name as its class. For object-oriented programming languages, there are generally three types of constructors:
C# has an umbrella term for the default and primary constructors above—instance constructors. This programming language also has two other constructors (private and static). This article focuses on the three traditional constructors.
Methods are not a crucial class component, but they are useful. A class can have one or more methods. A method has an access modifier, a return type, a name, and a body.
The code above returns a string representation of the customer object.
After creating a complete class, equipping it with attributes, constructors, and a method, you can start creating objects using the different constructors. To create an object with no attributes, you can use the default constructor:
The line of code above creates a default customer and assigns it to a variable called John. With John, you can access the default value of each customer attribute.
Executing the code above prints the following in the console:
You can also use the John variable to access any method in the customer class.
Executing the line of code above prints the following output in the console:
To create an object with attributes, you would use the primary constructor:
Executing the code above prints the following output in the console:
To create a copy of the object above you can use the copy constructor:
Executing the code above prints the following output in the console:
As you can see the copy constructor is a copy of the primary constructor. The copy constructor can also take a default constructor as an argument:
Executing the code above prints the following output in the console:
You can use the object-oriented paradigm in C# to define classes and create objects from them. You can create methods for each class which can then operate on their objects’ attributes.
However, the object-oriented paradigm is not the only one you need to be familiar with. The top three programming paradigms are imperative, object-oriented, and functional.
Kadeisha Kean is a Full-Stack Software Developer and Technical/Technology Writer. She has the distinct ability to simplify some of the most complex technological concepts; producing material that can be easily understood by any technology novice. She is passionate about writing, developing interesting software, and traveling the world (through documentaries).
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