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How Optimal Control is used part1(Advanced Programming) – Medium

Nov 13
Author : Xuda Ding, Han Wang, Yi Ren, Yu Zheng, Cailian Chen, Jianping He
Abstract : Designing safety-critical control for robotic manipulators is challenging, especially in a cluttered environment. First, the actual trajectory of a manipulator might deviate from the planned one due to the complex collision environments and non-trivial dynamics, leading to collision; Second, the feasible space for the manipulator is hard to obtain since the explicit distance functions between collision meshes are unknown. By analyzing the relationship between the safe set and the controlled invariant set, this paper proposes a data-driven control barrier function (CBF) construction method, which extracts CBF from distance samples. Specifically, the CBF guarantees the controlled invariant property for considering the system dynamics. The data-driven method samples the distance function and determines the safe set. Then, the CBF is synthesized based on the safe set by a scenario-based sum of square (SOS) program. Unlike most existing linearization based approaches, our method reserves the volume of the feasible space for planning without approximation, which helps find a solution in a cluttered environment. The control law is obtained by solving a CBF-based quadratic program in real time, which works as a safe filter for the desired planning-based controller. Moreover, our method guarantees safety with the proven probabilistic result. Our method is validated on a 7-DOF manipulator in both real and virtual cluttered environments. The experiments show that the manipulator is able to execute tasks where the clearance between obstacles is in millimeters.
2.Approximating Reachable Sets for Neural Network based Models in Real-Time via OptimalControl (arXiv)
Author : Omanshu Thapliyal, Inseok Hwang
Abstract : In this paper, we present a data-driven framework for real-time estimation of reachable sets for control systems where the plant is modeled using neural networks (NNs). We utilize a running example of a quadrotor model that is learned using trajectory data via NNs. The NN learned offline, can be excited online to obtain linear approximations for reachability analysis. We use a dynamic mode decomposition based approach to obtain linear liftings of the NN model. The linear models thus obtained can utilize optimal control theory to obtain polytopic approximations to the reachable sets in real-time. The polytopic approximations can be tuned to arbitrary degrees of accuracy. The proposed framework can be extended to other nonlinear models that utilize NNs to estimate plant dynamics. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework using an illustrative simulation of quadrotor dynamics
3.Connecting Stochastic Optimal Control and Reinforcement Learning (arXiv)
Author : Jannes Quer, Enric Ribera Borrell
Abstract : In this article we study the connection of stochastic optimal control and reinforcement learning. Our main motivation is an importance sampling application to rare events sampling which can be reformulated as an optimal control problem. By using a parameterized approach the optimal control problem turns into a stochastic optimization problem which still presents some open questions regarding how to tackle the scalability to high-dimensional problems and how to deal with the intrinsic metastability of the system. With the aim to explore new methods we connect the optimal control problem to reinforcement learning since both share the same underlying framework namely a Markov decision process (MDP). We show how the MDP can be formulated for the optimal control problem. Furthermore, we discuss how the stochastic optimal control problem can be interpreted in a reinforcement learning framework. At the end of the article we present the application of two different reinforcement learning algorithms to the optimal control problem and compare the advantages and disadvantages of the two algorithms

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