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Django Interview Questions and Answers

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What is Django?

Django is an open-source web framework that is written in the Python programming language. It is a collection of different modules that allow developers to create applications and websites.

What is Django used for?

Django is used for creating web applications using inbuilt libraries, APIS, templates, and frameworks. It was designed to increase the application development speed as the syntax is simple. The developers have access to over 4000 packages that have modules for development. It can be used with social media sites, content management sites.

How to check Django version?

To check the Django version, open your Python Console and type the following code:

import Django

Django.VERSION

OR You can check the Django version on your PC via command prompt. Just open the command prompt and execute the following line:

py -m django --version

What are some important features of Django?

Important features of Django are as follows:

  • If you have basic knowledge of Python, the web framework is easy to learn
  • It has one of the best documentation in the market of web frameworks
  • As it maintains sites through URLs rather than IP addresses, the SEO experts can add it to the server easily
  • Many MNCs are using it due to its high scalability
  • Django offers high security through user authentication when handling accounts and also prevents security issues like cross-site scripting, SQL injection, cross-site request forgery, etc.
  • It is free and open-source
  • Active community support
  • Supports rapid development

What is the difference between Render and Render to Response in Django?     

The render() is a function that is used for combining a context dictionary and a template and returns an object of HttpResponse type. This object will contain the rendered text.

The render_to_response() function works like the render() function but here the response does not have the request. Here a context_instance is required.

Explain the architecture of Django?

Django follows an MVC (Model View Controller) architecture:

  • Model – This layer depicts the data structure and the database schema. This section of the web application acts as a bridge between the database and the interface
  • View – This layer describes the user interface and the UI logic containing HTML, CSS and other technologies used in the front end
  • Controller – This layer selects the view component as per the UI. It applies the model component.

How to start a Django project?

Steps to start a Django project:

  • Open the command prompt and navigate to the folder where the project has to be created. Use the following code – $ Django-admin startproject myproject.
  • The project will be set up in a folder called settings.py.
  • The database dictionary will contain the database that is set for your project
  • Set options like TEMPLATE, TIME_ZONE, and LANGUAGE_CODE
  • Check whether the project is working by the code python manage.py runserver

What is a model in Django?

In Django, the model is a class representing a collection or a table in the database. Here every attribute is a field belonging to the collection or table. Every model inherits django.db.models.Model. class. Django provides database access API for handling the models.

What are Django serializers?

Serializers let the developers convert model instances into Python data types that can be rendered into formats like XML and JSON. It also allows the conversion of parsed data types into complex types.

What are static files in Django?

The image, CSS and Javascript files that are used for websites to work properly are called static files in Django. The django.contrib.staticfiles module is needed to handle these files. But the module has to be included in the INSTALLED_APPS folder.

What are the types of inheritance supported by Django?     

Three types of inheritance supported by Django are:

  • Multi-table inheritance
  • Abstract base classes
  • Proxy models

What is csrf_token in Django?

CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) is a type of Cross-Site Scripting attack that is operated from a dangerous or malicious website to the user’s browser. This can affect the server. Django uses a CSRF token security feature to protect your form data from being lost. You need to add the following code in the forms that use a POST request:

<form action="" method="post">

{ % csrf_token % }

</form>

What is manage.py in Django?

When a new Django project is created the manage.py file is automatically created. It works as a local Django admin for interacting with the project through the command-line interface.

Manage.py starts the application within the new project, executes tests and starts the development server. It is used to set the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE variable so that it points to the settings.py file.

How to set sessions variable in Django?

Session variables are important as it captures session values across different web pages.

The following code is used for saving a value in a session variable:

request.session['session_variable_name'] = "value"

The code to retrieve the data from the session variable is:

request.session['session_variable_name']

What is Queryset in Django?

A Queryset in Django is a set of SQL queries and can be considered as a list of Model objects. It allows users to read data, filter and order data from a database. It can have one, many or zero filters. As per the given parameters, the query results are narrowed down by the filters.

What are the differences between Flask and Django?  

Differences between Flask and Django are:

Django Flask
It is an open-source framework having many powerful libraries and tools It is a micro framework that does not have external libraries or tools
The project layout has a conventional structure Projects have arbitrary structure
Batteries aid the developers to create applications without using third-party libraries. But changes cannot be made in the modules There are no batteries but developers can make applications using a variety of tools and libraries
The built-in ORM supports developers to work with a variety of databases like MySQL, SQLite, and Oracle. Writing lengthy queries for common database operations can be avoided. There is no ORM and common operations are carried out through SQLAlchemy
The Django-admin allows developers to develop applications within the project without external input. There is no such functionality.

What is URL patterns in Django?

In a web application when a request is raised for a page, the Django controller searches for the view through the url.py file. The URL patterns tuple resides in this file that describes the mapping between the views and the URLs. Based on the result of this mapping, the HTML page is returned or a 404 not found error is returned.

What is signal and use of signals in Django?

If there is a modification in the model’s instance, an action has to be executed. Signals are used for associated actions and events. The signal dispatcher notifies the decoupled programs when some action occurs in the framework. The built-in signals are sent through the send() method.

A set of signals that are sent by the model are defined by the module django.db.models.signals.

Explain get and post method in Django?

In Django, HTTP requests are of two types – GET and POST, which are used when handling forms.

  • Using the POST method, the browser bundles the data encodes it and is sent to the server.
  • The GET method bundles that data into a string and uses it to create an URL. This URL has the address where the data is sent along with the values and keys of the data.

What is middleware and usage of middlewares in Django?

Middleware is a lightweight, low-level plugin that is used for changing a response or request object. It is actually a framework of hooks for altering Django’s inputs and output. They are used for different functions like security, authentication or CSRF protection.

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